College of Education







                                               Talaat Ismael Hasan     (Lecturer)        

 College of Education at Salahaddin University-Erbil in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of PhD inMathematics - Numerical Analysis

phone number, 0750 470 1532

The data of viva is 6/8/2017  Sunday

Examining Committee


Prof. Dr. Abbas Y. Al-Bayati


Talahfer University


Prof. Dr. Fadil H. Esf


Zako University


 Asst. Prof. Dr. Shazad Shawke Ahmad


Sulimaina University


Asst. Prof. Dr. Abdulghafor M.Ameen


Musol University


Asst. Prof. Dr. Ivan S. Latif


Salahaddin University


Prof. Dr. Nejmaddin A.


Member and main supervisor

Salahaddin University


Prof. Dr. Shaharuddin Saleh 

Member and


University technology Malaysia




Iterative Solutions for Linear Volterra-Fredholm Integral Equation of the Second Kind and Its System


The main objective of this work is to study and modify some iterative methods for solving problems of linear Volterra-Fredholm integral equations of the second kind and the system of linear Volterra Fredholm integral equations of the second kind based on the Banach fixed-point theorem, some theorems have been proved.

The work includes modifications and improvements to existing techniques, namely, fixed-point method, improved fixed-point method, successive approximation method, method of successive substitution, Adomian decomposition method, Homotopy perturbation method and iterative kernel method, also series solution method on its system with regard to the existence and uniqueness theorem for Volterra Fredholm integral equations of the second kind.

         The work also incorporates the insertion of Aitkens method to the above methods which improves the rate of acceleration for convergence of the sequence solution to the problems. The new approach is supported by good simulation results and examples on several case study problems using Matlab version 12. 

In addition, we introduce iterative techniques which are called modified successive approximation method, modified Adomian decomposition method, modified Homotopy perturbation method and modified Aitkens method for treating the above-mentioned problems, these techniques produces a faster rate of convergence for treating the Volterra-Fredholm integral equations of the second kind and its system problems. These methods are supported by several new theorems on the convergence, stability and robustness.


Sirwa Anwar Qadir


Examining committee:

Dr. Sami Reshag Laibi Al. Zubaydi (Chairman)                                       

Prof. Dr. Dalshad Azeez Darwesh     

Prof. Dr. Jamil Yasin A. Al Tamimi 

Prof. Dr. Aram A. Muhamad  

Asst. Prof. Dr. Zirak FA. Abdulrahman 

Date of viva: Thursday 13 / 7/ 2017 

Supervised by

Asst. Prof. Dr. Mohammed Qader Khursheed

Prof. Dr. Fahrul ZamanHuyop



Evaluation of the Physiological Properties and Genetic Diversity of Bread Wheat Triticum aestivum L. under Drought condition

A Dissertation

Submitted to the Council of the College of Education at Salahaddin University - Erbil in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of PhD in Plant Physiology



The overall study carried out during the growing seasons of 2013-2016, included four consequent studies; where it was begun with a field study during growing season December 1st, 2013 to May 30th, 2014 in the fields of Main Agricultural Research Station, Ministry of Agricultural and Water Resources to evaluate variation in morphological, physiological, biophysical and biochemical characters among the 15 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes in randomized block design with three replications. The crop growth period located under a wide range of temperature from -4.16 to 39.70oC and water stress due to limited rainfall 284.60 mm and the relative humidity ranged from 26.04 to 72.22%. The second study included three pot experiments were carried out in the glasshouse of College of Science, Salahaddin University during the growing season (December 1st, 2014 to May 10th, 2015), comprise the susceptible genotypes (Aras and Sabeer-beg), moderately tolerant genotypes (Adene and Panda) and tolerant genotypes (Rabeaa and Azady) were selected from the field experiment. The first experiment was carried out to study the effect of six wheat genotypes, three levels of water sress (30, 70 and 100%) of field capacity and their combination on yield components, morphological and growth characteristics, as well as drought tolerance indices. The experiment carried out as factorial in CRD with five replicates. The second experiment carried out as factorial in randomized design with five replicates, included the combination of six wheat genotypes and six irrigation regimes due to omitting four irrigations at: tillering, stem elongation, booting, heading and grain filling compared to control plants. Growth and yield components had been studied. The third experiment carried out as factorial in randomized design with four replicates, included the combinations of six wheat genotypes and two water stress level (100% and 30%FC) upon different biophysical, physiological and biochemical parameters which were measured after 80 days from sowing. The third study included the in vitro culture characters of the fifteen bread wheat genotypes under water tension condition using polyethylene glycol (PEG-8000), in a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications in the laboratories of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia during the period of(Jan, 15thto April1stof 2016). The mean of treatments were compared using Fischer's Least Significant Differences (LSD) at (p≤ 0.05) at 5% and 1% level of significant for field and laboratory experiments. The final study carried out for genetic diversity evaluation among the fifteen bread wheat genotypes using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique using fifteen RAPD primers in the laboratories of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia during the period (February, 15th to April, 10th of 2016). 

The results could be summarized as follows:

  •        Under the circumstances of high temperatures and limited rainfall field, a significant variation were recorded among the genotypes in; tillers plant-1, blade leaves area (BLAcm2 plant-1), shoot dry weight and its partitioning (g plant-1), adaxial stoma number, relative water content (RWC %), chlorophyll stability index (CSI %), membrane stability index (MSI %), chlorophylls; a and b, total nitrogen and protein content. The yield components which were comorised the ; number of spikes plant-1, weight of spikes Plant-1, number of grains spike-1, 1000-grain weight (g), grain yield (g plant-1), biological yield (g plant-1) and harvest index (HI).Depending on the degree of significant variation the genotypes divided to three main clusters; tolerant genotypes; Ezz, Rabeaa, Azady and Rizgary, moderately tolerant; Sham-6, Adena, Panda, ebba-99, Ebba-95 and Abehade, and susceptible group; Floakwa, Abu-ghreb, Aras, Tammuz-2 and Sabeer-beg.
  •        The mild (70% FC) and sever (30% FC) of field capacity drought stress under glass house condition caused significant decrease in; plant height, tiller number plant-1, total dry matter and its partitioning, flag leaf area (FLA cm2), relative growth rate g g-1 day-1, number of days from sowing to 50% flowering, biological yield as well as the final yield and its components, while an increase in harvest index mean values was observed.
  •        The drought indices based on the yield under control and stress conditions had been recorded, the highest values for tolerance (TOL), susceptibility index (SSI) and yield stability index (YSI) for the susceptible genotypes were noticed, while highest values of mean productivity (MP) and geometric mean of productivity (GMP) were recorded by the tolerant genotypes. On this base genotypes were clustered to tolerant genotypes; Adena, Rabeaa and Azady, and the susceptible group; Sabeer-beg, Aras and Panda.
  •        Water stress at tillering and stem elongation stages caused a significant decrease in plant height and tillers number. As well as water regime at stem elongation and booting cause significant reduction in BLA (cm2 plant-1), shoot dry weight and it’spartitioning in comparison with control plants. While the water regime at stem elongation and booting stages cause significant decrease in specific leaf area SLA. The highest SLA 0.50 cm2 mg-1was recorded by the tolerant genotype Azady and Rabeaa, followed by Panda < Adene < Sabeer-beg < Aras. Vice versa a significant increase obseved in the specific leaf weight (SLW).
  •        Water regime at stem elongation, heading and grain filling stages caused a significant lowering in yield and yield components, spike length, spikes number plant-1, weight of spikes plant-1, and grains number plant-1, 1000-grain weight (g) and grain yield g plant-1. The extent of loweing in yield was higher in Aras, followed by Sabeer-beg < Panda < Adena < Rabeaa < Azady.
  •        Severe drought stress 30% FC caused significant decrease in adaxial and abaxial stomatal number, inter veinal distance, leaf relative water content (LRWC %), chlorophyll stability index (CSI %), membrane stability index (MSI), chlorophylls and carotenoids, total nitrogen, protein and potassium content as detrimental effects of drought.
  •        Highest proline content was recorded by Adena under water stress 30% FC. Meanwhile highest total soluble sugars content, root weight and shoot: root ratio were recorded by Azady.
  •        Significant variability was observed among the genotypes under in vitro culture condition in their ability for callus mass formation as well as different plant regeneration potential; in vitro tolerance (INTOL) and reduction percent in fresh weight (R %). Meanwhile significant reductions recorded under drought stress in Relative fresh weight growth (RFWG), relative growth rate (RGR) and relative water content (RWC %). Accordingly the genotypes were clustered to three major clusters; the tolerant genotypes; Azady, Sham-6, Ezz, Adena, Rabeaa, Abu-ghreb and Rizgary, moderately tolerant genotypes; Panda, Saber-beg, Abehade, Ebba-95 and Ebba-99 and the susceptible one; Aras, Tammuz-2 and Floakwa.
  •        DNA polymorphisms scored within detected amplified bands. Ten primers related to drought and generate total of 257 bands, the size of fragments ranged from 137 to 1875 bp with mean of 95.72% degree of polymorphism among wheat genotypes. Some primers were 100% polymorphic; OPK-15, OPF-15, OPB-1, OPA-10 and OPC-10. Lowest band number (5) produced by OPF-6, while the highest (64) bands generated by OPD-8.
  •   Cluster analysis (phylogenetic tree) by unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic means (UPGMA based dendrogram) revealed two main genetic groups. The first group was; Rizgary, Rabeaa, Azady, Adena, Abu-ghreb and Sham-6. The second group was; Tammuz-2, Aras, Floakwa, Abehade, Sabeer-beg, Ebba-95 panda, Ebba-99 and Ezz.
  •   The overall analysis of the results revealed that the genetic relationships among the wheat genotypes related to some of their morphological, physiological, biophysical and biochemical behaviors as well as to their geographical origins.


    Kasim Fawzy Ahmed AlRawanduzy



    Lecturer / PhD Student

    Department of Physics

    College of Education

    University of Salahaddin -Hawler


    Date: 18/07/2017

    Asst. Prof. Dr. Saeed Omer Ibrahim/Supervisor

    Prof. Dr. Md. Rahim Sahar/Co-Supervisor

    Prof. Dr. Mohammad Taqi Hussain/Chairperson

    Prof. Dr. Bassam Mahmoud Mustafa/Member

    Prof. Dr. Sabah Jalal Fathi  /Member

    Asst. Prof. Dr.Mumtaz Mohammed Salih/Member

    Asst. Prof. Dr. Ayoub  Sabir Karim/Member



    Thermal, Structural and Spectroscopic Properties of Rare Earth Elements Co-Doped Zinc Tellurite Glass with AgCl Nanoparticles.


    In this work, three groups of glass with composition the (70-x)TeO2-30ZnCl2-xNd2O3 as a doping process by the rare element of Nd3+, (70-2x)TeO2-30ZnCl2-xNd2O3-xEr2O3 as a co-doping process by the rare element REs of Nd3+ and Er3+ and (69.5-2.5x)TeO2-30ZnCl2-xNd2O3-xEr2O3-(0.5+0.5x)AgCl  (where x=0, 1, 2 and 3mol%) as an embedding process with silver nano particles (Ag NPs) beside the REs are prepared using conventional melt-quenching technique. The physical properties are measured in term of the glass density. The thermal parameters are characterized by deferential thermal analysis (DTA). The structure properties are characterized by using X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) to determine the amorphous nature of all the glass samples, Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX) to measure the weight of elements inside all samples, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) to verify the occurrence of (Ag NPs) inside the glass for embadded process, the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopes reveal modification in network structures, the absorption characteristics for all the glass samples were observed using UV-Visible-NIR spectrophotometer. The weight of elements inside. It is found that the density of the samples increases with adding more REs to the composition. The thermal analysis shows that the glass transition temperature Tg, the glass crystallization temperature Tc, and the melting temperature Tm increase with increasing of REs content. The highest thermal stability S and the forming tendency H, where recorded for the glass sample of (2.0mol %) for the doping process. The glass sample of (0.0mol %) for the co-doping process and for the glass sample of (3.0mol %) for the embedding process to be (70.49±1°C, 0.386), (56.84±1°C, 0.481) and (70.52±1°C, 0.387) respectively. For embedding process, the TEM image confirmed the percentage of Ag NPs with average diameter of (»2.3nm). The FTIR and Raman Spectroscope shows evidence of shifted vibrational wave-number of TeO4 and TeO3 in structural unit with the location of band assignment positions. UV-Visible-NIR spectra reveal nine absorption band peaks for doping with Nd3+ ions. In co-doping process, four absorption peaks of Nd3+ ion and five absorption peaks of Er3+ ionoccurs. The refractive index of the samples were recorded to be in the range of (2.263 to 2.446).



    Saman Qadir Mawlud / Physics Department


     Five series of samarium doped sodium tellurite glass embedded with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in the composition (80-x) TeO2-20Na2O-xSm2O3 (x=0, 0.3, 0.6, 1, 1.2, 1.5 mol%), (79-x)TeO2-20Na2O-1Sm2O3-xAuCl3      (x=0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1 mol%), (80-x)TeO2-20Na2O-xAuCl3 (x=0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1), 78.6TeO2-20Na2O-1Sm2O3-0.4AuCl3 (Heat treated at 300 oC, 325 oC,   350 oC, 375 oC) and 78.6TeO2-20Na2O-1Sm2O3-0.4AuCl3 (Heat treated for 3h, 6h, 12h, 24h), were prepared using conventional melt quenching technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analyzer (DTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, absorption spectroscopy, and emission spectroscopy. The amorphous nature of the glass was confirmed using the X-ray diffraction method. The increase in Tg from 265.6 to 270.9 °C as revealed by DTA analysis attributed to the arrangement of Au NPs in the glass matrix. The homogeneous distribution and growth of spherical and non-spherical Au NPs (average size ~3.36±0.076 nm to ~10.62±0.303 nm) in the glassy matrix was evidenced from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectra showed 9 bands corresponding to transition bands from ground state 6H5/2 to excited states 6P3/2, 4I11/2, 6F11/2, 6F9/2, 6F7/2, 6F5/2, 6F3/2, 6H15/2 and 6F1/2 in which the most intense bands were 6F9/2, 6F7/2, 6F5/2 and 6F3/2. The absorption spectrum of Sm3+ ions free glass sample containing Au NPs displayed two prominent surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band located at ~550 nm and ~590 nm. The infrared to visible frequency down conversion emission under 404 nm excitation showed four emission bands centered at 577 nm, 614 nm, 658 nm and 718 related to the transitions 4G5/2→6H5/2, 4G5/2→6H7/2, 4G5/2→6H9/2 and 4G5/2→6H11/2,respectively, corresponding to Sm3+ transitions. An enhancement in down conversion emission intensity of both green and red bands were observed in the presence of gold NPs either by increasing annealing time or by NPs concentration. For glass series II, the enhancement in photoluminescence (PL) intensity of glass containing 0.4 mol% AuCl3 showed the maximum enhancement by a factor of 1.90:1.82:1.97:2.25 times for all transitions bands. For glass series IV, the enhancement in PL intensity of glass with heat treatment at 325 °C showed the maximum PL intensity with enhancement factor of 1.88:1.33:1.54:2.16 for those four bands. For glass series V, the enhancement in PL intensity of glass with heat treatment at    325 oC and annealing time 6 h showed the maximum PL intensity with enhancement factor of 1.54:1.76:1.68:1.45 for those four bands. The enhancement was mainly ascribed to the highly localized electric field of    Au NPs positioned in the vicinity of Sm3+ ion. FTIR spectra show the vibrational Na-O bonds units, Te-O bond in TeO3 trigonal pyramidal (tp) and TeO4 trigonal bipyramidal (tbp) units and the hydroxyl groups. Raman spectra show the presence of Sm-O bond, Na-O bond, Te-O-Te bridging configurations and with higher oxygen coordination, anti-symmetric vibrations of Te-O-Te bonds and stretching modes of non-bonding oxygen found on the TeO3 and TeO3+1 unit. The enhancement of down conversion emission was understood in terms of the intensified local field effect due to gold NPs. For Series I and Series II of samples, the Judd-Ofelt parameters      (, λ= 2, 4, 6) were calculated and used to estimate the important parameters such as total: radiative transition probability (), stimulated emission cross-section (), radiative lifetime () and branching ratio () for the excited levels of Sm3+ ions in the glass. The values of  for the 4G5/2 emission transition are in order of 6H7/2 > 6H9/2 > 6H11/2 > 6H5/2. It was found that 4G5/2→6H7/2 transition has maximum  value 12.51×10-22 cm2 for TNSA3 glasses. The maximum value of gain bandwidth 17.55×10-28 cm3 was obtained for TNSA3 glass corresponding to 4G5/2→6H7/2 transitions. Similarly, the maximum optical gain corresponding to 4G5/2→6H7/2 transition was     0.63×10-25 cm2 s-1 obtained. Furthermore, the values of  for the studied glasses were found to be higher than that of glasses reported in the literature. These relatively higher values of  reflect low symmetry and high covalency around the Sm3+ ions. Authors assert that these tellurite glass nanocomposites can be used for developments of the solid-state lasers and nanophotonics applications.